[PATCH 3/5] mm: Activate !PageLRU pages on mark_page_accessed if page is on local pagevec

From: Mel Gorman
Date: Fri May 17 2013 - 05:49:18 EST

If a page is on a pagevec then it is !PageLRU and mark_page_accessed()
may fail to move a page to the active list as expected. Now that the LRU
is selected at LRU drain time, mark pages PageActive if they are on the
local pagevec so it gets moved to the correct list at LRU drain time.
Using a debugging patch it was found that for a simple git checkout based
workload that pages were never added to the active file list in practice
but with this patch applied they are.

before after
LRU Add Active File 0 750583
LRU Add Active Anon 2640587 2702818
LRU Add Inactive File 8833662 8068353
LRU Add Inactive Anon 207 200

Note that only pages on the local pagevec are considered on purpose. A
!PageLRU page could be in the process of being released, reclaimed, migrated
or on a remote pagevec that is currently being drained. Marking it PageActive
is vunerable to races where PageLRU and Active bits are checked at the
wrong time. Page reclaim will trigger VM_BUG_ONs but depending on when the
race hits, it could also free a PageActive page to the page allocator and
trigger a bad_page warning. Similarly a potential race exists between a
per-cpu drain on a pagevec list and an activation on a remote CPU.

lru = page_lru(page);
if (PageLRU(page))
add_page_to_lru_list(page, lruvec, lru);

In this case a PageActive page is added to the inactivate list and later the
inactive/active stats will get skewed. While the PageActive checks in vmscan
could be removed and potentially dealt with, a skew in the statistics would
be very difficult to detect. Hence this patch deals just with the common case
where a page being marked accessed has just been added to the local pagevec.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@xxxxxxx>
mm/swap.c | 41 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
1 file changed, 39 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/swap.c b/mm/swap.c
index 868b493..c53d161 100644
--- a/mm/swap.c
+++ b/mm/swap.c
@@ -432,6 +432,33 @@ void activate_page(struct page *page)

+static void __lru_cache_activate_page(struct page *page)
+ struct pagevec *pvec = &get_cpu_var(lru_add_pvec);
+ int i;
+ /*
+ * Search backwards on the optimistic assumption that the page being
+ * activated has just been added to this pagevec. Note that only
+ * the local pagevec is examined as a !PageLRU page could be in the
+ * process of being released, reclaimed, migrated or on a remote
+ * pagevec that is currently being drained. Furthermore, marking
+ * a remote pagevec's page PageActive potentially hits a race where
+ * a page is marked PageActive just after it is added to the inactive
+ * list causing accounting errors and BUG_ON checks to trigger.
+ */
+ for (i = pagevec_count(pvec) - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
+ struct page *pagevec_page = pvec->pages[i];
+ if (pagevec_page == page) {
+ SetPageActive(page);
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ put_cpu_var(lru_add_pvec);
* Mark a page as having seen activity.
@@ -442,8 +469,18 @@ void activate_page(struct page *page)
void mark_page_accessed(struct page *page)
if (!PageActive(page) && !PageUnevictable(page) &&
- PageReferenced(page) && PageLRU(page)) {
- activate_page(page);
+ PageReferenced(page)) {
+ /*
+ * If the page is on the LRU, queue it for activation via
+ * activate_page_pvecs. Otherwise, assume the page is on a
+ * pagevec, mark it active and it'll be moved to the active
+ * LRU on the next drain.
+ */
+ if (PageLRU(page))
+ activate_page(page);
+ else
+ __lru_cache_activate_page(page);
} else if (!PageReferenced(page)) {

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