Re: RFC: Device isolation groups

From: Alex Williamson
Date: Wed Feb 01 2012 - 15:08:51 EST

On Wed, 2012-02-01 at 15:46 +1100, David Gibson wrote:
> This patch series introduces a new infrastructure to the driver core
> for representing "device isolation groups". That is, groups of
> devices which can be "isolated" in such a way that the rest of the
> system can be protected from them, even in the presence of userspace
> or a guest OS directly driving the devices.
> Isolation will typically be due to an IOMMU which can safely remap DMA
> and interrupts coming from these devices. We need to represent whole
> groups, rather than individual devices, because there are a number of
> cases where the group can be isolated as a whole, but devices within
> it cannot be safely isolated from each other - this usually occurs
> because the IOMMU cannot reliably distinguish which device in the
> group initiated a transaction. In other words, isolation groups
> represent the minimum safe granularity for passthrough to guests or
> userspace.
> This series provides the core infraustrcture for tracking isolation
> groups, and example implementations initializing the groups
> appropriately for two PCI bridges (which include IOMMUs) found on IBM
> POWER systems.
> Actually using the group information is not included here, but David
> Woodhouse has expressed an interest in using a structure like this to
> represent operations in iommu_ops more correctly.
> Some tracking of groups is a prerequisite for safe passthrough of
> devices to guests or userspace, such as done by VFIO. Current VFIO
> patches use the iommu_ops->device_group mechanism for this. However,
> that mechanism is awkward, because without an in-kernel concrete
> representation of groups, enumerating a group requires traversing
> every device on a given bus type. It also fails to cover some very
> plausible IOMMU topologies, because its groups cannot span devices on
> multiple bus types.

So far so good, but there's not much meat on the bone yet. The sysfs
linking and a list of devices in a group is all pretty straight forward
and obvious. I'm not sure yet how this solves the DMA quirks kind of
issues though. For instance if we have the ricoh device that uses the
wrong source ID for DMA from function 1 and we put functions 0 & 1 in an
isolation group... then what? And who does device quirk grouping? Each
IOMMU driver?

For the iommu_device_group() interface, I had imagined that we'd have
something like:

struct device *device_dma_alias_quirk(struct device *dev)
if (<is broken ricoh func 1)
return <ricoh func0>;

return dev;

Then iommu_device_group turns into:

int iommu_device_group(struct device *dev, unsigned int *groupid)
dev = device_dma_alias_quirk(dev);
if (iommu_present(dev->bus) && dev->bus->iommu_ops->device_group)
return dev->bus->iommu_ops->device_group(dev, groupid);

return -ENODEV;

and device_dma_alias_quirk() is available for dma_ops too.

So maybe a struct device_isolation_group not only needs a list of
devices, but it also needs the representative device to do mappings
identified. dma_ops would then just use dev->di_group->dma_dev for
mappings, and I assume we call iommu_alloc() with a di_group and instead
of iommu_attach/detach_device, we'd have iommu_attach/detach_group?

What I'm really curious about is where you now stand on what's going to
happen in device_isolation_bind(). How do we get from a device in sysfs
pointing to a group to something like vfio binding to that group and
creating a chardev to access it? Are we manipulating automatic driver
binding or existing bound drivers once a group is bound? Do isolation
groups enforce isolation, or just describe it? Thanks,


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